Googins, B. K., Mirvis, P. H., & Rochlin, S. A. (2007). Beyond good company: Next generation of corporate citizenship. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Senge, P., Smith, B., Kruschwitz, N., Laur, J., & Schley, S. (2008). The necessary revolution: How individuals and organizations are working together to create a sustainable world [Kindle version]. Retrieved from

Googins etal (2007) believe that the hardest transition for an organization is the movement to a stage four level.  Senge, Smith, Kruschwitz, Laur & Schley(2008) concur in that movement between the stages is a cycle from compliance to innovation, with the most significant part being the evolution from stage three into the more sophisticated stages where CSR informs strategy and purpose.   In my experience, I believe that moving from stage two into stage three, whereby the entire organization has been elevated fully into stage three is also a challenge.  It requires an organization to fire on all cylinders.  That takes the organization from authentically delivering CSR, albeit with a partial commitment, to scalable CSR that is multi-faceted, multi-dimensional, and has multi-level impact throughout the organization.  

"We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny.  
Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly.'' 
- Martin Luther King, Jr.

itCSR©:  Doing CSR the Right Way

Doing CSR the Right Way:  Assimilation of Frameworks (Berger, 2013)

 Denise Berger,​ Ed.D.
 Leadership    Culture      Impact

This is informed by Googins, Mirvis, Rochlin's (2007)

Five Stages of Corporate Citizenship